Structural editing considers the manuscript as a whole, and reorganizes the structure and content of the text.
Stylistic editing focuses on smoothing the language at the sentence level. This phase eliminates redundancy, ensures coherency, and clarifies meaning.
Copy editing improves the overall readability of a manuscript by concentrating on the mechanics of the text: the prescribed style, grammar, word usage, spelling, and punctuation.
Proofreading, the final stage of editing, looks at the layout of the manuscript—single word lines, misplaced diagrams, page breaks, running heads, and headings—and catches any minor typos and errors that may have slipped.
Plain language revising turns your technical terminology—jargon—into a message that the general public will understand more easily. Revising involves adjusting the vocabulary, reducing sentence length, modifying the tone to capture your audience, and clarifying terms and concepts, if necessary.
Indexing creates an alphabetical list of terms and concepts that appear in the work. A proper index easily and quickly points readers to the information they are seeking, and reflects the tone of the text, while maintaining consistency in style.